Breast Cancer awareness

At the beginning of the 20th century, a link was recognized between certain substances and cancer. In one example, men who were engaged in distilling the bicyclic aromatic substance 2-Naphthylamine later developed cancer of the bladder. Obviously, this substance somehow caused cancer. Such substances were termed "carcinogens".

Many people are afraid of "chemicals", which they suppose to be the most relevant causes of cancer. Yet, this is a misconception. For example, Aflatoxin B1, one of the most relevant carcinogens, is a purely natural product. It is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, which thrives on peanuts, corn, grain or pistachios, if these foods are stored in warm or humid conditions. In many tropical and subtropical parts of the world, this is inevitable for lack of better storage infrastructure. Aflatoxin by itself is not mutagenic. After its ingestion with food, it is taken up via the gut and reaches the liver via the portal vein. In hepatocytes, it is oxidized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system to a highly reactive intermediate, Aflatoxin-epoxide, which proceeds to bind covalently to nitrogen or oxygen atoms in cellular macromolecules. A typical acceptor in DNA is the N7-atom of guanine. The combination forms a bulky complex termed a DNA adduct. We have efficient repair systems to deal with such adducts, but if the next DNA replication fork comes first, misincorporation may occur. The DNA-aflatoxin-adduct is able to form hydrogen bonds not only with the correct cytosine, but also with adenosine; yet the replication fork seems to get stuck with a C, while it is able to hobble past an A. Altogether, the adduct favors misincorporation of an A. Enter the repair system, which removes the adduct and resynthesizes the strand, placing a T opposite the A. In summary, the process replaces an original G with a T. Likely, this mechanism is responsible for the G→T mutation at the third position of codon 249 of the tumor suppressor p53. This mutation, which is frequently observed in regions burdened by aflatoxin-contaminated food, exchanges Arginine 249 (AGG), which is important for DNA-binding, for a Serine (AGT), inactivating the tumor suppressor. This process is thought to contribute to the high frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma observed in the tropics.

Heating protein-rich food causes numerous chemical reactions. When cooking meats or fish at high temperatures, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) such as  PhiP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5 b]pyridine) are formed. PhiP causes mutations much like aflatoxin. Oxidation of PhiP's exocyclic amino group by a cytochrome P450 oxidase generates highly reactive N-OH-PhiP, which again reacts with guanine to form a DNA adduct.

In today's society, potential "hidden" environmental carcinogens are the focus of a lot of anxiety. At the same time, people voluntarily expose themselves to established carcinogens all the time: take carcinogens in tobacco smoke or the mutagenic effect of UV irradiation.


  • Kattie
    posted by Kattie Thursday, 29 March 2018 07:21

    My brother suggested I might like this blog.
    He usrd to be toptally right. Thiis submit truly mwde my
    day. You cann't imagine just how much tie I had pent for this
    info! Thanks!

  • Christi
    posted by Christi Sunday, 25 March 2018 22:21

    I am reɑlly thankful tⲟ the holder ⲟf tһіs web paցe
    who haѕ shared this fantastic article ɑt at thiѕ place.

  • Luis Williams
    posted by Luis Williams Thursday, 22 March 2018 01:49

    I have questions about your article... Please call Me: (914) 419-3292 -OR- Email:

  • body type diet
    posted by body type diet Sunday, 10 December 2017 10:57

    I think I read another post like this one in the past. It seemed to be the exact same content and was just as well written.

  • High Heels
    posted by High Heels Wednesday, 16 August 2017 07:28

    A striptease is an erotic or exotic [url=""]virtua girl hd[/url] dance where the entertainer gradually undresses, either partially or entirely, in a sexy and sexually suggestive way. [1] The person who performs a striptease is typically known as a "stripper" or stripper.In Western nations, the places where erotic dances are performed on a regular basis are now normally called strip clubs, though they might be performed in locations such as clubs (especially in the UK), theaters and music halls. At times, a stripper might be hired to carry out at a bachelor or bachelorette celebration. In addition to offering adult entertainment, removing can be a kind of sexual play in between partners. This can be done as an unscripted occasion or-- perhaps for an unique event-- with fancy planning including fantasy wear, music, unique lighting, practiced dance relocations, or unrehearsed dance moves.Striptease involves a slow, sensual undressing. The stripper may lengthen the undressing with delaying strategies such as the using of additional clothing or putting clothing or hands in front of simply undressed body parts such as the breasts or genitalia. The emphasis is on the act of undressing together with sexually suggestive motion, instead of the state of being undressed. In the past, the efficiency often finished as quickly as the undressing was completed, though today's strippers generally continue dancing in the nude. [2] [3] The outfit the stripper uses prior to disrobing can form part of the act. Sometimes, audience interaction can form part of the act, with audience advising the stripper to remove more clothing, or the stripper approaching the audience to engage with them.Striptease and public nudity have gone through legal and cultural prohibitions and other aesthetic considerations and taboos. Constraints on locations might be through place licensing requirements and restraints and a wide variety of national and regional laws. These laws vary significantly around the world, and even between various parts of the same country.H. L. Mencken is credited with creating the word ecdysiast-- from "ecdysis", meaning "to molt"-- in response to a request from striptease artist Georgia Sothern, for a "more dignified" method to describe her occupation. Gypsy Rose Lee, among the most famous striptease artists of all time, authorized of the term.

  • how to cheat in dream league soccer
    posted by how to cheat in dream league soccer Friday, 30 June 2017 14:16

    I merely want to say I am novice to weblog and actually enjoyed you're site . Likely I'm wish to bookmark your website. You certainly include great posts. Thanks a lot for exposing your blog site.

  • Click Here
    posted by Click Here Wednesday, 07 June 2017 13:16

    Hi there I am so delighted I located your web site, I really discovered you by accident,while I was looking into on Aol for another thing, However I am below currently and [url=""][/url] Right here now and also would jujst like to claim joys for a significant blog post aand a all round exciting blog site (I also love the theme/design), I do not have time to search it all at the moment I have actually book-marked it and added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will bbe back to learn more, Please do keep up the great

  • Quinn Waldridge
    posted by Quinn Waldridge Sunday, 04 June 2017 22:15

    Hello there I am so glad I found your internet site, I really found you by mishap,while I was investigating on Aol for another thing, Nonetheless I am below currently as well as [url=""][/url] Here currently and also would jujst like to say cheers for an incredible post aand a all round amazing blog (I additionally like the theme/design), I do not have time to surf it all at the moment I have book-marked it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will certainly bbe back to learn more, Please do keep up the great

  • Bernarda Ragazzo
    posted by Bernarda Ragazzo Sunday, 04 June 2017 20:43

    Hello there I am so happy I discovered your website, I actually discovered you by mishap,while I was researching on Aol for something else, However I am here now and [url=""][/url] Here currently as well as would certainly jujst like to say joys for a remarkable blog post aand a all rounded amazing blog site (I also like the theme/design), I don't have time to surf it all at the moment I have actually book-marked it and also included your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will certainly bbe back to learn more, Please do keep up the amazing

  • Terri Rotz
    posted by Terri Rotz Saturday, 03 June 2017 07:40

    Hello there I am so happy I located your web site, I truly found you by mishap,while I was investigating on Aol for something else, Nonetheless I am Below now as well as would jujst like to state joys for a remarkable message aand a all round interesting blog site (I additionally enjoy the theme/design), I do not have time to browse it all at the minute I have book-marked it and added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will certainly bbe back to read more, Please do keep up the fantastic

Leave a comment

Make sure you enter the (*) required information where indicated. HTML code is not allowed.